BLIK FOR BUSINESS

GROW YOUR BUSINESS WITH BLIK

Give your customers’ what they want with simple and secure payments from BLIK. With thousands of transactions per hour, millions of satisfied users and dozens of partners BLIK is a proven leader in mobile payment.

OUR MISSION

BLIK IS ABOUT GIVING EVERYONE  ACCESS TO THE SIMPLICITY AND  CONVENIENCE OF ONLINE  PAYMENTS

We created BLIK, because we believe that everyone should be able to quickly and securely make online payments. We are driven by our client’s needs – offering simple transfers between customers, banks and acquirer.

OUR HISTORY

A COMMON PURSUIT OF  DEVELOPING THE BEST PAYMENT  TECHNOLOGY

BLIK was born in spite of competition. Poland’s six largest  banks came together to establish  Poland as the global leader in  payment by creating a universal  and convenient payment solution.

2013

The 6 largest Polish banks: Alior Bank, Bank Millennium, Bank Zachodni WBK, ING Bank Śląski, mBank and PKO Bank Polski create Polish Payment Standard LLC.

2014

PSP receives legal consent for the BLIK mobile payments system from the NBP.

2015

BLIK, an innovative mobile payment system, appeared on the market on February 9. In half a year, BLIK got the first million users.

2016

Availability of BLIK in e-commerce sector reached 100% – a radical increase in transactions.

2017

As many as 4.5 million Poles – more than half of mobile banking users in Poland – regularly use BLIK. Poles made almost 13 million BLIK transactions in the first half of 2017.

NEWS/21 May 2018

Students and pupils pay less in Multikino with BLIK

BLIK has become a partner of Multikino’s newest promotion dedicated to pupils and students. From May, 17th they can buy a special M!Karta card that enables them to purchase discount tickets from Monday to Thursday. Additionally with buying tickets online and paying via BLIK, the M!Karta owners pay ... more

NEWS/23 Apr 2018

BLIK now available at Polish ePayment terminals 

Polish Epayments has made payments with BLIK available to their customers. The new partnership was made possible by Alior Bank. Thanks to PayLane, customers paying online will also be able to use BLIK when checking out. – Greatly increasing BLIK’s availability at payment terminals  across Pola ... more

NEWS/22 Feb 2018

BLIK available in Żabka and Freshmarket stores

All customers of Żabka and Freshmarket stores can now use BLIK. Those who choose this payment method will receive a coupon which entitles to purchase selected products for PLN 1. The campaign “Pay with BLIK and receive voucher for chocolate bar or chips for PLN 1” will last until March ... more
BLIK FOR BUSINESS
OUR MISSION
OUR HISTORY
Newsy

BLIK WHO’S IT FOR?

FOR ENTREPRENEURS

FOR ENTREPRENEURS

Your customers are obsessed with  their smartphones – and now they  are shopping and paying over  there phones more than ever. Help  make their lives easier! BLIK gives  your customers the freedom of  mobile payments.

BLIK offers more competitive rates  compared to other payment  methods. Use BLIK and increase  your company’s sales.

FOR BANKS

FOR BANKS

Show your clients that you care  about them – introduce them to  the flexibility of BLIK. Add BLIK to  your mobile app and give your  clients the most simple and secure  mobile payment solution.

You can use BLIK in-store, online, at  ATMs and CDMs. You can even  make P2P payments – all you need  is a phone number. BLIK gives your  customers access to a large and  dynamic payment network.

FOR ACQUIRERS

FOR ACQUIRERS

We know you need the most  effective payment method. That’s  what BLIK is for. Your customers  will be grateful for BLIK’s  convenience and partnership with  Poland’s banks – and you’ll love its  low prices.

BLIK is available to business with  Licensing from the National Paying  Authority, issued by KNF.

Blik OUR PRODUCTS

ONLINE
PAYMENTS

BLIK eCommerce and  mCommerce payments

ONLINE <br>PAYMENTS

The fastest, most convenient and  secure payment method available.  With BLIK, the user is in control  every step of the way. It allows for  recurring payments, and some  online stores partnered with BLIK  are “one click” enabled – no need to  enter your BLIK code!

IN-STORE
PAYMENTS

Paying with BLIK at POS terminals,  cash register systems, vending and  ticket machines

IN-STORE <BR>PAYMENTS

Thanks to our diverse range of  partners, BLIK offers customers an  extensive network of stores where  they can pay using BLIK. Now  everyone can pay with their  smartphone.

MAKE DEPOSITS AND  WITHDRAWALS AT ATMS

ATM deposits/withdrawals at ATMs

MAKE DEPOSITS AND  WITHDRAWALS AT ATMS

BLIK customers can now use their  phones to withdrawal and deposit   cash at over 70% of ATMs in Poland.

P2P TRANSFERS USING YOUR  PHONE NUMBER

Use your phone number to make  transfers with BLIK

P2P TRANSFERS USING YOUR  PHONE NUMBER

BLIK enables instant, interbank,  transfers. All you need is your  recipient’s phone number. No need  to enter a 26-digit account  number.

PARTNERS

We work with Poland’s largest  banks and acquirers.

News

21 May 2018

Students and pupils pay less in Multikino with BLIK

BLIK has become a partner of Multikino’s newest promotion dedicated to pupils and students. From May, 17th they can buy a special M!Karta card that enables them to purchase discount tickets from Monday to Thursday. Additionally with buying tickets online and paying via BLIK, the M!Karta owners pay less also during weekends.

Multikino is one of the biggest multiplex chains in Poland – 32 cinemas with 258 screens in total. From May, 17th pupils and students from all over the country can buy there M!Karta card. It is valid for a year and costs 14,90 PLN. From Monday to Friday card allows its owner to have a ticket for a 2D movie in Multikino for only 14,90 zlotys. Additionally, if you choose to pay with BLIK online on the www.multikino.pl, you will spend only 14,90 zlotys for every ticket – on weekdays and during the weekend.

– BLIK is present in Multikino since 2015 and has already got a significant number of fans among cinema’s clients. The chain was in the forefront when it comes to implementing One Click BLIK – the scheme which enables users to pay with only one click. As M!Karta partner we can target a group of younger consumers who are fond of modern payments solutions such as BLIK. If they have not had the opportunity to try it yet, now they can see how fast and convenient it is – and enjoy cheaper tickets at the same time – comments Anna Nowacka, the Marketing Director at Polish Payment Standard (PSP).

 

23 Apr 2018

BLIK now available at Polish ePayment terminals 

  • Polish Epayments has made payments with BLIK available to their customers.
  • The new partnership was made possible by Alior Bank.
  • Thanks to PayLane, customers paying online will also be able to use BLIK when checking out.

– Greatly increasing BLIK’s availability at payment terminals  across Poland is necessary. This way our users can enjoy the same convenience in-store as they do when paying online and while using an ATM. Partnering with Polish Epayments is an important step towards realizing that goal. This means BLIK is available at tens of thousands of new card  terminals – says Dariusz Mazurkiewicz, President of Polish Payment Standard – BLIK’s owner.

BLIK is a safe and convenient for of  electronic payment, and makes  everyday shopping very simple. When  shopping at a card terminal, enter your  6-digit code generated in your bank’s  mobile app and then confirm the  transaction on your phone. Your BLIK  code will be active for two minutes. BLIK  can be used online, in-store and also at ATMs. BLIK’s popularity is increasing  very quickly. BLIK has only been around  for three years – in 2015 we processed 2  million transactions, while in 2017 that  number was 33 million.

 – We will introduce BLIK to 40,000 of our  customers this quarter, greatly  increasing BLIK’s availability. We are  ready to introduce the service right  away. BLIK will also be available to  entrepreneurs who run their business  online, as BLIK will simultaneously be  implemented on PayLane – a company  owned by the PeP capital group – comments ​Jarosław Mikos, President of  Polish ePayments.

– In 2017 we made partnered with Polish  ePayments, which gave our business  clients preferential terms for using  moden PeP payment terminals. We  have now expanded our offering to  include accepting BLIK payments at  terminals. This is another example of an  initiative created in response to our  customers who value innovative,  convenient and secure solutions – says Maciej Surdyk, Vice President of the  Board of Alior Bank.

22 Feb 2018

BLIK available in Żabka and Freshmarket stores

All customers of Żabka and Freshmarket stores can now use BLIK. Those who choose this payment method will receive a coupon which entitles to purchase selected products for PLN 1. The campaign “Pay with BLIK and receive voucher for chocolate bar or chips for PLN 1” will last until March 20th.

Żabka and Freshmarket are some of the largest Polish convenience chains – they have over 4900 shops throughout the country. Currently, together with Polish Payment Standard, they encourage customers to use modern, secure payment methods with no need to carry cash or cards with them.

To take part in the promotion, you just have to pay via BLIK for purchases in Żabka and Freshmarket stores. For every BLIK purchase, customers will receive special promotional coupon, which allows them to buy chips or chocolate bar for only PLN 1.

– Żabka and Freshmarket are some of the most popular stores in Poland which are located in both small and large cities. We want all their customers to have a possibility to pay BLIK and see how convenient and safe it is. This is a very important element in popularizing BLIK payment system – says Anna Nowacka, Director of Marketing in Polish Payment Standard.

15 Feb 2018

Raiffeisen Polbank launches BLIK payments

Since February 14th, Raiffeisen Polbank’s clients can use BLIK payments. Thus, they gained the ability to pay quickly and conveniently on the Internet, withdraw cash from ATMs and make non-cash payments in traditional stores.

– Next Bank is joining BLIK system which confirms the popularity of our payment method among mobile banking users. We are convinced that thanks to BLIK’s availability at Raiffeisen Polbank, we will see further increases in transactions number and more and more people will have the opportunity to check how fast, convenient and safe BLIK is – says Adam Kokoszkiewicz, Director of Sales and Business Development Department of the Polish Payment Standard, BLIK’s operator.

BLIK at Raiffeisen Polbank is available in “Mobilny Portfel” (“Mobile Wallet”) application, which can be downloaded from Google Play market for Android and App Store for iOS. The bank is planning to make more BLIK services available this year, such as OneClick, Pay-By-Link or P2P. In addition, the application will soon gain a completely new, very convenient interface and solutions, such as: payment for public transport tickets and parking lots, mobile authorization and a number of other functionalities that facilitate everyday life.

07 Feb 2018

Bank Pekao S.A. joins BLIK

Representatives of Bank Pekao S.A. and Polish Payment Standard Ltd., have signed an agreement on joining BLIK mobile payment system. Pekao’s mobile banking app – PeoPay – users will be able to pay via BLIK this year. In addition, it will be available at POS and ATMs of Bank Pekao S.A.

Adding BLIK to the PeoPay application will be carried out in two phases. In the first stage, planned for the second quarter of 2018, PeoPay users will be able to pay via BLIK in stores, on the internet (also using recurring payments) and withdraw money from ATMs. In the second implementation phase, planned for the third quarter of 2018, app users will be able to make BLIK money transfers to a telephone number.

– This is a crucial moment in the development of our payment system. Thanks to our cooperation, BLIK will be available to 96% of mobile banking applications users in Poland. BLIK finally confirms that it is a universal payment system – says Dariusz Mazurkiewicz, CEO of the Polish Payment Standard, BLIK’s operator. – In addition, clients who are already using BLIK will benefit from our agreement with Pekao S.A. because system will be available in another 60,000 POS and over 2,000 ATMs.

Via BLIK, you can now withdraw money in over 17,000 ATMs and pay in 230,000 POS. After providing the service by Bank Pekao S.A. these numbers will increase to 19,000 ATMs and 290,000 POS.

AWARDS

We have won many prestigious  awards.

Mobile Trend Award

We won a Mobile Trend Award in 2015 in the ​“Company supporting  the development of mobile  technology” category for the  implementation of the BLIK  payment system.

Efma-Accenture Innovation Award

The international Efma-Accenture  Innovation Award 2015 in the “Best  Innovation in Payments” category  for the launch of BLIK.

Effie Awards

The Silver Effie Award in 2017 in the  “Finance” category for the “BLIK &  it’s done” marketing campaign.

eDukat 2018

Polish Payment Standard won the eDukat 2018 for being “cashless world’s company of the year” during the 6th International Cashless Congress.

Mobility Trends

Polish Payment Standard won the  award for “Mobile payment of the  year 2017” at the Mobility Trends  competition. BLIK won following  an open internet vote.

Ekomers

We won third place in the “Debut  of the year” category at the  Ekomers competition in 2015,  which recognizes products that  contribute to the development of  the Polish e-commerce sector.

IT@BANK 2

BLIK won “Product of the Year”  IT@BANK awards in 2015 organized  by “BANK” magazine.

eDukat

BLIK won an eDukat award 2016  and was recognized as a  “technology that changed the  non-cash payment market”. It was  awarded at the 4th International  Congress of Non-Cash Payments.

FutureTech Congress 2017

BLIK won in the Payment Solutions category in the competition organized during international FutureTech Congress 2017.

ABOUT US

PPS is a project created and led by  industry experts.

Our team is creating new payment methods that are revolutionizing mobile payments in Poland. Our team members have developed and implemented the most  innovative cashless payments, mobile banking and electronic banking programs. 

LEADERSHIP

Dariusz Mazurkiewicz

Dariusz
Mazurkiewicz

President of the Management Board 

President of the Management  Board of Polish Payment Standard

Dariusz Mazurkiewicz was  previously the Vice President of the  Management Board at PPS, and  formerly the Director of the  Product Development  Department.  Between 2010 and 2014, he was the  President of the Management  Board of SkyCash Poland SA, where  he developed SkyCash – an  innovative mobile payment service.

Between 2008 and 2010 he was the  President of the Management  Board at Bauer-Weltbild Media,  developing multichannel sales in  their media segment.

Between 2006 and 2008 he was  the Vice Chairman of the Management Board and the Financial Director at Interia.pl SA in  Cracow. From 2002 to 2006, he  worked in finance holding positions such as Management Controller and Finance Director at  the headquarters of the Michelin Group in France.
He is a graduated with a degree in  financial management at the  University of Economics in  Katowice and the Silesian  International School of Economics.  He has experience in the field of  corporate finance, e-commerce  and direct marketing.

Monika Król

Monika
Król

Vice President of the Management  Board

Vice President of the Management  Board

Monika Król has several years of  experience in the financial services  industry, extensive experience as  an entrepreneur, investor and as a  marketing and strategy consultant  for various B2C companies.

Between 2011 and 2014 she was the  Managing Director at Bank BPH,  where she was responsible for  Marketing Communications and  PR. From 2006-2011, she was the  Marketing Director  at Fortis Bank Polska SA, and after  the merger with BNP Paribas  Polska SA, she took over the  function of Marketing and  Corporate Communications  Director at BNP Paribas Group  Poland. Monika Król started her  banking career at CitiBank  Handlowy where she was a  Communications and Marketing  Manager.

Monika Król has extensive  experience in planning and  implementing marketing  strategies, the implementation of  new product and sales strategies,  and in managing change  processes in the organization. She  also has project management  experience as part of a bank  merger, and has led rebranding  and repositioning processes.

She is a graduate of the Faculty of  Law and Administration,  Department of Management and  Marketing, University of Adam  Mickiewicz in Poznan. She has also  completed managerial programs  at Harvard Business School  Executive Education and London  Business School.

SUPERVISORY BOARD

Piotr Puchalski

Piotr Puchalski

Chairman of the Supervisory Board

Director of the Department of  Basic Services and Non-Banking  Products at mBank.

He has been the Director of the  Department of Basic Services and  Non-Banking Products in the retail  group at mBank S.A., since April  2014. He is responsible for  acquisition strategy, distribution  and pricing policy in the field of  current accounts, payment cards,  payments and bancassurance.

He has held managerial roles in  core business and insurances  groups at mBank since 2008  He participated in key projects,  including “New mBank” as a  member of the operational  management of the project  responsible for business strategy,  planning and implementation. He  also created the mSaver regular  saving program and developed the  “direct” insurance platform at  mBank.

He previously held sales and  marketing positions at  Centralwings airlines LOT Polish  Airlines, amongst others.

He studied at the Faculty of  Management at the University of  Lodz and Universidad de Valencia  in Spain.

Tomasz Niewiedział

Tomasz Niewiedział

Vice Chairman of the Supervisory Board

Director of the mobile and internet  banking group at Bank Zachodni WBK.

Tomasz Niewiedział is a graduate of  the University of Adam Mickiewicz  in Poznań with degrees in  Computer Science and History.

He began working at the  Wielkopolski Bank Kredytowy in  1995 and later at Bank Zachodni  WBK.

In 2004, he became the Director of  the Application Development  Department and later as the  System Development Group  Director, he was responsible for the  development of banking systems.

Since 2013, he has been responsible  for business and development of  modern distribution channels,  managing the Mobile and Internet  Banking Group.

Barbara Borgieł-Cury

Barbara Borgieł-Cury

Secretary of the Supervisory Board

Director of the Daily Banking Agile  Centre for the Retail Customer  Division ING Bank Śląski S.A.

She has been responsible for  accounts, payments, payment  cards and mobile payments for  individual customers at ING Bank  Śląski since January, 21 2017​. She is  also responsible for managing  partnerships with integrators and  payment organizations.

From 2014-2016, she was the  Director of the Next Generation of  Banking Program. She was also  responsible for the implementation  of the new online and mobile  banking system for retail clients.

In 2010 she was appointed Director  of Retail Payments and Cards, later  was the Director of Accounts, Cards and Payments. During this period,  the bank implemented the first  contactless card and the first  contactless ATM in Poland and the  possibility of making quick Express  Elixir transfers.

Prior to this, Barbara Borgieł-Cury  worked with deposit products and  retail sales networks. In these roles  she was responsible for  streamlining of processes and  efficiency strategy, amongst other  things.

She represented ING Bank Śląski  in Working Groups at the NBP and  ZBP for payments and cards.

Since has worked at ING Bank  Śląski S.A. since the beginning of  her career.

Barbara Borgieł-Cury is a graduate  of the Cracow Academy of  Economics (currently the University  of Economics).

Jerzy Zań

Jerzy Zań

Member of the Supervisory Board

Director of the Digital Banking  Department at Alior Bank

Jerzy is responsible for the  development of digital distribution  channels at Alior Bank. He also  oversees their integration with  products offered to individual and  institutional customers, as well as  online channel sales.

He started his career at ING Bank  Śląski S.A., before moving to Bank  BPH S.A. and Pekao S.A.. At Pekao,  he was responsible for electronic  banking systems products,  payment and transaction products, card programs, factoring, trade  finance, leasing and credit  products for the SME and  corporates segment.

As a member of the bank’s  operational management team, he  participated in projects building  new product offerings for  electronic banking, technological  transformations and acquisitions.  He also has extensive experience  with direct sales to institutional  clients, including payment  integrators.

Jerzy Zań holds an MBA from the  Carlson School of Management  (University of Minnesota). He is also  a graduate of the Warsaw School of  Economics.

Ricardo Campos

Ricardo Campos

Member of the Supervisory Board

Director of the Electronic Banking  Department at Bank Millennium  S.A.

A graduate of the Faculty of  Management of INP-Lisboa  (Instituto Superior de Novas  Profissoes).

He began his career in banking in  1991 at Banco Comercial Portugues,  where he started as a dealing room  employee.

In 1994, he became the  Commercial Director of Banco  Commercial de Macao in China. He  held this post for four years until he  was appointed as the Director of  Private and Institutional Banking in  the structures at the bank in 1998.

He was appointed the Marketing  Director of the Prestige business  line at Bank Millennium SA in  Poland in 2002.

He has been the Director of the  Electronic Banking Department of  Bank Millennium SA since 2005.

Szymon Wałach

Szymon Wałach

Member of the Supervisory Board

Director of the Retail Customer  Division of PKO Bank Polski.

He has worked at PKO Bank Polski  since May 2010. He was initially the  the Advisor to the President of the  Bank’s Management Board. In 2011,  he was appointed Director of the  Retail Customer Division where he  managed the product offerings  within the retail banking area. He  has worked in banking since 2000.  He began work as an Investment  Banker at Salomon Smith Barney  in New York. In 2002, he joined the  Boston office of The Boston  Consulting Group focusing on  consulting in the financial sector.  From 2004-2010 he worked at  Pekao SA, where he held various  managerial positions in the  Consumer Finance division.

He is a graduate of Finance at  Montclair State University in New  Jersey.

He is currently the vice chairman  and member of the Supervisory  Boards of: eService, PKO Życie  Towarzystwo Ubezpieczeń SA and  PKO Towarzystwo Ubezpieczeń SA.

CAREERS

We are looking for ambitious  people eager to develop the most  innovative mobile banking  technologies. Send us your CV  together with a data processing  clause for the needs of recruitment  to praca@polskistandardplatnosci.pl.

FAQ

Find answers to frequently asked  questions here.

What is the advantage of the BLIK  mobile payment system over other  payment methods?

Convenience, security and  flexibility. You can easily, and  securely pay in-store or withdrawal  cash using just their smartphone.  PPS’ system also allows users to  generate checks, and users can  instantly transfer money to  customers or different banks. BLIK  payments are secure – each  transaction has a unique, six-digit  code that can only be used for 2  minutes after it is generated. Users  must also confirm each transaction  (the amount and the recipient) in  their bank’s mobile app.

Can new participants join the BLIK  system and how? Under what  principles can they do so? 

The PPS system is open to new  participants and was designed for  banks, payment institutions and  paying agents. All you have to do is  sign the PPS’ participation and  terms agreement.

What commission will the stores  pay for the service of mobile  payments?

PSP offers competitive rates  relative to other cashless payment  methods. We are confident that  our offer will be a great competitive  advantage for our clients.

Will transaction fees differ for each  bank?

PSP charges every bank the same  rate However, each individual  banks sets their own transaction  fees.

Does every bank offer the same  BLIK features (checks, ATM  withdrawals, P2P payments, and  the ability to set transaction  limits)?

Each of the banks is required to  provide the same basic system  functions, such as generating a  code for POS, ATMs or online  transactions. Bank’s are not  required to offer BLIK’s P2P phone  transfers or checks. The  quantitative and amount limits for  BLIK mobile transactions are also  set individually by the banks.

What banks can become  participants in the BLIK system?

Any bank can be a part of the BLIK  network. Both, bank’s with an account  at the Narodowy Bank Polski and those  who don’t have one – as a, so-called,  indirect participant of the BLIK system. If  the bank doesn’t have an account with  Narodowy Bank Polski, it should  establish a partnership with another  bank that has such an account and is a  participant in the PPS system.

What banks can become participants in the BLIK system?

Each bank can become a participant in the BLIK system. Both the Narodowy Bank Polski account holders and those who don’t have one – as so-called indirect participant of the BLIK system. If the bank isn’t the Narodowy Bank Polski account holder, it should establish cooperation with another bank that has such an account and is a participant in the PPS system.

How can I offer BLIK payments in  my store?

In order to offer your customers BLIK  in-store, you’ll have to establish a  partnership with one of the following  paying agents that current works with  BLIK first: Przelewy24, PayU, BlueMedia,  DotPay, eCard, TPay, CashBill, FirstData,  eService, PayTel and ITCard. If you’d like  to process BLIK payments using your  phone, just download one of the above  paying agents’ app on your phone and  follow its instructions. 

Do I need to have a separate  agreement with BLIK?

If you’re a paying agent – yes but if you  own a store, then you do not have to.  Store owners only need to sign a  contract with a paying agent, not with  BLIK.

How many banks (and which  ones) offer BLIK to their  customers?

The list of banks partnered with BLIK  can be found at ​ww.blikmobile.pl in the  “Start paying with BLIK” tab.

Is it worth implementing a BLIK  payment without entering the  code option (OneClick)?

BLIK OneClick payments can be made  without entering a code when shopping  in a previously saved store or when  using a saved browser – in the latter  case no changes in the store’s system  are required. BLIK OneClick payments  don’t require you to enter the BLIK code  when shopping, making paying even  easier.
When paying with OneClick online, the  user selects the BLIK payment method,  clicks “buy and pay”, and the bank’s  mobile app automatically opens and  presents the user with a new payment  to be confirmed.

The BLIK OneClick payments are  particularly convenient when shopping  online, because the customer no longer  has to switch between the online store  and bank application screen.

When will BLIK be available to all  banks?

BLIK is available to every bank. All they  need to do is make the choice to  connect to the BLIK network.

Which paying agent should I use?

It’s up to you. Take a look at the various  paying agents that we’re partnered with and choose the one that has the best  offer for you.

Which large brands/online stores  already offer BLIK? Where can I  see examples of paying with BLIK  online and BLIK OneClick? Can I  test them? 

BLIK is available in almost all online  stores. You can see how to pay with  BLIK in this video on our YouTube  profile in the ​“How to pay with BLIK on the Internet”​ tab. We invite you  to take a look at  www.Blikmobile.pl​, where in the  “Check BLIK out” tab you can  perform transactions with the  “payment directly online” feature  for 1 PLN extra, and the funds will  support the Children’s University  Foundation.

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